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Proposed Roanoke County Cluster Development
Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft Draft
October 8, 1999



Grindstone Engineering
Hank Sloan, PE & R.L.S.
P.O. Box 20034
Roanoke, VA 24018
989-8849
grindstone@worldnet.att.net



Proposed Property Resource Mapping Costs
First step in the cluster development process, as proposed, prior to preliminary plat

  3 –10 acre cluster = $250/acre
10 + acres = $200/acre

Contact for more details or for no cost preliminary review of specific tract


Including the following scope of services:

Mapping of the following property resources as proposed:

When this property resource mapping is complete, the site development process will be ready for a preliminary plat.




Roanoke County Proposed Cluster Ordinance as of October 24, 1999



AN ORDINANCE AMENDING AND REENACTING THE ZONING ORDINANCE OF THE COUNTY OF ROANOKE VIRGINIA BY ADDING PROVISIONS FOR CLUSTER SUBDIVISIONS

Draft as of 10/24/99
I.        ARTICLE II DEFINITIONS AND USE TYPES IS HEREBY AMENDED AS FOLLOWS:


SEC 30-28 DEFINITIONS.

DELETE:

Cluster: A development design technique that concentrates buildings in specific areas on the site to allow the remaining land to be used for recreation, common open space, and preservation of environmentally-sensitive areas.

ADD:

Cluster Subdivision: An alternative means of subdividing land that concentrates building density in specific areas to allow the remaining land to be reserved for the preservation of environmentally-sensitive features and open space.

Conservation Areas, Primary: Areas within the 100-year floodplain, slopes greater than 25%, lands within designated view sheds and designated ridgetop preservation areas identified and mapped in the 1998 Community Plan, greenway corridors shown on the Greenway Conceptual Plan and elevations 1500 feet or greater above mean sea level.

Conservation Areas, Secondary:
Areas with slopes between 15% and 25%, healthy woodlands, locations of species listed as endangered, threatened or of special concern, historic structures and sites, riparian zones outside the FEMA study area and productive agricultural and forested lands.

Lot, Conservation:
A lot that has been dedicated to a land trust, homeowners, condominium, or similar association, government agency or other entity through an easement or other transfer of ownership, and set aside in perpetuity as open space in a cluster subdivision.

Property Resource Map: A map utilized in the cluster subdivision process that depicts the Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas of the subject property.




II.        ARTICLE III DISTRICT REGULATIONS IS HEREBY AMENDED BY THE ADDITION OF THE FOLLOWING PERMITTED USES:


SEC. 30-41- 2 PERMITTED USES

(A)        

1.        Residential Uses

Single Family Dwelling, Attached and Detached ( Cluster Subdivision Option -*)

SEC 30-42-2 PERMITTED USES.

(A)        

1.        Residential Uses

Single Family Dwelling, Attached and Detached ( Cluster Subdivision Option -*)

SEC 30-45-2 PERMITTED USES.

(A)        

1.        Residential Uses

Single Family Dwelling, Attached and Detached ( Cluster Subdivision Option -*)


SEC 30-46-2 PERMITTED USES.

(A)        

1.        Residential Uses

Single Family Dwelling, Attached and Detached ( Cluster Subdivision Option -*)


III.        ARTICLE IV USE AND DESIGN STANDARDS IS HEREBY AMENDED BY THE ADDITION OF THE FOLLOWING USE AND DESIGN STANDARDS FOR CLUSTER SUBDIVISIONS.


  1. 30-82-13.1 Single Family Dwelling, Attached and Detached (Cluster Subdivision Option)

(A) Intent

  1. Establish a method for Roanoke County to protect vital natural and historic resources from development and permanent loss.

  1. Prevent the destruction of valuable view sheds, ridgetops and wildlife corridors, including but not limited to, the Blue Ridge Parkway and Appalachian Trail, and other resources identified in the 1998 Community Plan.

  1. Reserve, enhance, and add to the existing and proposed greenway system throughout the County, as identified in the 1998 Community Plan.

  1. Provide the citizens of Roanoke County additional open space and recreation areas.

  1. Encourage the design of creative, innovative developments that utilize the land=s natural resources and features and incorporates them into functional preservation and development plans.

  1. Offer an alternative to conventional subdivision development by allowing for compact clusters of housing units rather than spaced lots that encompass the entire property.

(B) Applicability


  1. 1.Cluster subdivisions proposed in accordance with the standards contained herein shall be a permitted use by-right in R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 zoning districts.

  1. 2.The Zoning Administrator shall have the responsibility for determining compliance with these standards. Proposals for cluster subdivisions that, in the opinion of the Zoning Administrator, do not meet one or more of the standards contained herein shall not be permitted by-right. Any such proposal shall be reviewed, upon petition by the Zoning Administrator, or the applicant, by the Roanoke County Planning Commission under the authority granted by Section 15.2-2286 of the Code of Virginia. As part of their review, the Commission shall have the authority, but not the obligation, to approve or deny the cluster proposal and to waive any standard contained herein. Prior to the issuance of any waiver, the Planning Commission shall give notice in accordance with Section 15.2-2204 of the Code of Virginia and hold a public hearing on the matter.

The Zoning Administrator or applicant may appeal the Planning Commission
=s decision to the Board of Supervisors. The Board of Supervisor=s shall give notice in accordance with Section 15.2-2204 of the Code of Virginia and hold a public hearing on the matter.

If the petition is withdrawn at the request of the applicant subsequent to the decision by the Planning Commission on the application, or if the Commission denies any application submitted for its review, the Planning Commission shall not consider substantially the same application for the same property within one year of the applicant
=s withdrawal or Commission=s action.


(C) General Standards

  1. 1.Minimum tract size of the cluster subdivision: Three (3) acres.

  1. 2.Public water and public sewer shall be provided to each lot within the proposed subdivision.

  1. 3.Property shall be excluded from the cluster subdivision option where, in the opinion of the Zoning Administrator, previous land disturbing activities have significantly altered a Primary or Secondary Conservation Area, to the extent that important features worthy of conservation have been destroyed or severely modified.

  1. 4.Allowable density: Eight (8) dwelling units per acre.


(D) Minimum Lot, Setback and Frontage Requirements


  1. There shall be no minimum lot area or setback requirements, however, the normal front, rear, and side yard setback requirements must be maintained adjacent to any lot or existing public street right of way not within the proposed cluster development.

  1. Minimum public street frontage: Forty eight (48) feet on a publicly owned and maintained street except as modified by Section 30-82-13.1 (F)


(E) Open Space Requirements

  1. Minimum Open Space: Thirty-five (35) percent of the gross acreage of the tract. If the site contains Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas in excess of 35 percent, all Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas shall be preserved up to a required maximum of 50 percent of the tract. The applicant shall have the right to provide conservation areas in excess of those required.

  1. When Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas exceed 50 percent of the tract, then Primary Conservation Areas shall be given priority in reaching the 50 percent maximum open space.

  1. At least 40 percent of all lots for residential use shall have a property line directly abutting the open space area within the cluster development, or have direct access to a developed greenway trail.

  1. Ownership and maintenance of open space shall be one of the following:

  1. Common land owned in perpetuity by the owners of lots in the development, through a homeowners, condominium or similar association. Provisions for the maintenance of the open space in perpetuity shall be approved by the Zoning Administrator in conjunction with plat approval.

  1. Dedication of the land in perpetuity to a nonprofit organization or land trust through a conservation easement or fee simple conveyance.

  1. Public land after dedication to, acceptance and maintenance by the Roanoke County Board of Supervisors or other governmental entity for recreational, conservation, historic or other open space purposes.

  1. Conservation lots may be created in compliance with the terms of this ordinance and the Roanoke County Subdivision ordinance, notwithstanding the frontage, width, area, and other design standards for lots found in Article III of this ordinance. Any such lot proposed for platting shall be clearly designated on a subdivision plat reviewed and approved by Roanoke County. This plat shall contain notations and covenants that clearly forbid, in perpetuity, the use of the conservation lot for any type of residential dwelling, or other use or structure as prohibited by these provisions.

  1. If required open space is located within a mapped greenway corridor, as depicted on the Greenway Conceptual Plan at the time of submittal of the preliminary plat, then a greenway easement shall be dedicated to Roanoke County or their designated agent. The Zoning Administrator, in consultation with the Roanoke Valley Greenway Commission, shall determine the exact location and dimensions of the easement to be dedicated.

  1. No building, building addition, structure, road, driveway, parking area or any other type of physical land improvement shall be located within a required Primary or Secondary Conservation Area as defined in (E) 1. and 2. above. Notwithstanding the above, greenway trails may be developed in Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas.


(F) Street and Access Requirements

  1. All residential lots within a cluster subdivision shall have frontage on and access to a publicly dedicated and maintained street except as provided in this section.

  1. Lots within a cluster subdivision shall not be required to have frontage on a publicly dedicated and maintained street provided:
  2. No dwelling unit shall be located further than 500 feet, as measured in a straight line, from an access point to a publicly dedicated and maintained street that the dwelling unit has direct access to, and

  1. Lots without public street frontage shall be planned and arranged into distinct residential clusters of three (3) or more dwelling units served by a common private street, and
  2. No more than twenty (20) dwelling units shall be allowed on any single private street or independent network of private streets.

  1. Maintenance of private streets shall be the responsibility of the homeowners association. Subdivision plat covenants shall provide that all maintenance of private roads, including snow removal, is not a public responsibility. Covenants shall further certify that the private road shall not be eligible for acceptance into the State Secondary System for maintenance until such time as it is constructed and otherwise complies with all requirements of the Virginia Department of Transportation for the addition of subdivision streets current at the time of such request. Any costs required to cause private streets to become eligible for addition into the state system shall be provided with funds other than those administered by Roanoke County or the Virginia Department of Transportation.

  1. Pavement surface: The minimum pavement surface shall be asphalt. Alternate materials such as concrete, structural pavers, or cobblestone may be substituted provided the proposed surface will support the expected loads. Calculations and/or manufacturers specifications shall be required at submittal. Gravel is not an acceptable surface course.

  1. Base Course: six (6) inches minimum depth. For streets to be served by school buses, eight (8) inches minimum depth. These depths are for sub-bases with a CBR value of 10 or higher.

  1. Private streets shall be designed to accommodate the provision of regular public services. Specifically:

  1. Vehicle turn arounds shall be included. The turn around may be a cul-de-sac or T-turn around.

  1. A representative of the Roanoke County School Board shall review the design, and location of all proposed private streets, and shall advise the applicant whether or not the proposed private streets meet the standards for school bus service. If the proposed design does not meet standards for school bus service, the final subdivision plat shall contain a notation that the proposed private streets do not meet the standards for public school bus services and that the Roanoke County School board shall not be obligated to provide service on the private streets.

  1. The final subdivision plat shall contain the notation that the proposed private streets do not meet the standards for public solid waste collection and that Roanoke County shall not provide solid waste collection on private streets. The applicant shall have the responsibility for addressing the collection of solid waste on private streets and a representative of the Roanoke County Department of General Services shall review proposals for solid waste collection on private streets.

  1. Vehicular Access: Private streets shall be platted as a separate parcel of land dedicated to the homeowners= association. Private right of way width shall be of sufficient width to encompass all drainage structures for the street and to allow maintenance of the street. On street parking shall be prohibited on at least one side of the street, to ensure adequate space for public service vehicles.

  1. Drainage: Drainage design shall meet all existing Virginia Department of Transportation and County of Roanoke standards, as amended. Drainage easements shall be platted to the homeowners= association for maintenance.


  1. Signage:

a.   All traffic control and warning signs on private streets shall be the responsibility of the developer/homeowners= association, and
  1. All access points from the public street to the private street shall be clearly marked with a sign stating that the street is private.

  2. Private Street Design: The following are required design standards for private streets.

PROJECTED TRAFFIC (VEHICLES PER DAY) MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM PAVEMENT WIDTH a MAXIMUM GRADE b MINIMUM SIGHT DISTANCE c MINIMUM SHOULDER WIDTH
30-40 VPD 14' 18% 50' 2'
41-80 VPD 16' 18% 70' 3'
81-100 VPD 18' 18% 90' 4'
101-200 VPD 20' 16% 100' 4'

    1. Pavement width is based upon a shoulder and ditch section. One-way streets shall be a minimum of twelve (12) feet wide.
    2. Maximum grade: streets shall not exceed 300 feet in length for grades greater than or equal to 16%. Maximum grade at all landings shall not exceed 5%. Length of the landing, in feet, shall be based on the following formula: vehicles per day X .5 feet.
    3. Sight distance refers to stopping distance only. Sight distance at the intersection of two private streets shall meet a design speed of 25 mph. Sight distance at the intersection of a private street and a public street shall meet VDOT commercial entrance requirements.



(G)        Public Water and Sanitary Sewer

1.        Public water and sewer shall conform with Roanoke County Water and Sewer Standards, latest edition, with the following exceptions:

a.         For homes located within the minimum required distance to a fire hydrant, the following shall apply:
  1. The homes shall be served by private laterals.

  1. Water meters and sewer cleanouts shall be located near the public street right of way.

  1. A maximum of six meters or cleanouts shall be located side by side.

b.         For homes requiring extension of public water and sewer services, the following shall apply:

  1. A twenty-five (25) foot easement shall be provided. The easement may be shared by both services, provided the depth is not excessive.

  1. At least one of the services (water or sewer) shall be located outside of a street pavement area.

  1. If the street pavement surface is an alternative to asphalt, the Director of Utilities must approve, in writing, the location of the services within the paved area.

  1. The water and sewer easement(s) shall be separate from any Public Utility Easement.

(H) Cluster Development Process

1.        The applicant shall meet with the Zoning Administrator or his/her designee to review the requirements for a cluster subdivision prior to the preparation of the preliminary plat. A site visit shall be arranged to review the site and identify approximate locations of Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas. The applicant shall then have drawn, preferably by a licensed engineer/surveyor, architect or landscape architect, a Property Resource Map. At a minimum this map shall include the following:

a.        Total acreage and acreage of each Primary and Secondary Conservation area and other open space areas

b.         Percent slope, in the following increments: <15%, 15-25%, >25%

c.        Flood plains, wetlands, and riparian zones outside the FEMA study area

d.        Historic structures and sites

e.        Designated view sheds and ridgetop preservation areas identified and mapped in the 1998 Community Plan

f.        Greenway corridors mapped on the Greenway Conceptual Plan

g.        Elevations 1500 feet or greater above mean sea level

h.        Healthy woodlands

i.        Location of species listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern

j.        Productive agricultural and forested lands

2.        During the development of the preliminary plat, the property owner shall consult with Roanoke County to determine the appropriateness of the dedication of open space for public use, such as a school, park, library, or other public facility.

3.        The applicant shall submit a preliminary plat in accordance with Article II of the Roanoke County Subdivision Regulations. The following additional items shall be required to accompany the preliminary plat:

a.        All Primary and Secondary Conservation Areas and other required open space areas to be designated as permanent open space, shall be mapped as conservation lots and noted on the plat.

b.        All deed restrictions and covenants applicable to private streets, public services, open space, and cluster subdivision lots.

c.        The location of all building lots to be conveyed.

4.        Once approval for the preliminary plat has been given, the applicant shall submit the final plat in accordance with Article III of the Roanoke County Subdivision Regulations.




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